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The successors of Iltutmish after Razia Sultana

The successors of Iltutmish after Razia Sultana

Razia Sultan carried the legacy of his great father and ascended the throne in 1236 AD but was surrounded by conspirators from the very beginning of her rule. When she was garlanded with the title of Sultan, she observed “parda” (veil) but later she had to abandon it and she started heading military expeditions with a bare face riding elephants or horses.

Turks took it against their honor and propagated it anti-religion and against their cultural heritage. The Qramta insurgency in 1237 AD was appeased in her tenure. (Qramta rose as a faction of religion under Noor Ali, a Turk gathering up the people of same thinking in Delhi. He attacked the Jamia Masjid of Delhi on a Juma prayer and killed a large number of devotees in the mosque. But he was arrested and crushed by the Amirs of Delhi very soon).

Turk cream of the crop also mutinied against her rule and Razia Sultan’s favors on the Forty (a group of forty non-Turk influential members loyal to Iltutmish and the subsequent ruler Razia) especially Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut (a non-Turk Black slave) excited a rivalry among the court elders who could not digest the tilt of Sultan Razia towards non-Turks. Malik Aluptigin was at the top of the adversaries of Razia who were waylaying to let down her realm. He provoked Izzuddin Kabir Khan, the ruler of Lahore to rise against her but she forced Izzuddin to surrender and triumphantly came back to Delhi on March 12, 1240 AD. Malik Ikhiyar-ud-Din Altunia, the ruler of Bathinda stood in the opposition and she left for Bathinda to crush the coup d’état of Altunia on April 4, 1240 AD but her own military generals withdrew from the war and consequently she was arrested and killed in the same year.

Moizzuddin Behram Shah (1240-1241 AD)

When Razia Sultan was confined to the fort of Bathinda, the influential courtiers recognized Behram Shah as Sultan whereas practically the government slipped into the hands of Ikhtiyar-ud-Din and Mohazzab-ud-Din (the brother-in-law of Ikhtiyar-ud-Din). Behram Shah ordered his trusted companion to attack and perish them. Both of them were wounded and Sultan handed over the affairs of the state to Badr-ud-Din who plotted against him later but was jailed by Behram Shah. In his age, Mughals from Chengez Khan’s pedigree assaulted Lahore and Qraqash, the ruler of Lahore fled to Delhi finding him unable to meet the Mughal onslaught. Behram sent Qutab-ud-Din Hasan Ghauri and Nizam-ul-Mulk Mohazzab-ud-Din to counter Mughol attack. Before leaving, Mohazzab-ud-Din is believed to get the orders of killing the elites of Behram Shah. Reacting to these orders, the elites killed Behram Shah in 1241 AD.

Ala-ud-Din Mas’ud Shah (1241-1246 AD)

After the assassination of Moizzuddin Behram Shah, Malik Azuddin Balban took the reins of power in his hands but the dominant courtiers refused to recognize him. They released Sultan Ala-ud-Din Mas’ud Shah and crowned him. In his age, the Mughals invaded Bangala but could not succeed. They seized Uch but again met with failure. Instead of paying heed to the affairs of empire, Sultan abandoned himself to the luxuries and opulence which drove the high officials to depose him in 1246 AD.

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud (1246-1266)

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud was crowned on June 10, 1246 after the dismissal of Sultan Mas’ud. He handed over the affairs of the state to Ghiyath-ud-Din Balban whereas Multan and Punjab were given under the rule of Sher Khan, Balban’s brother. In his age, the Mughals plundered Herat, Kandhar, Balkh, Kabul and Ghazni. Balban appointed Sher Khan as the governor of all frontier areas which were reunited as a single province. Sher Khan administered these areas curbing the rebellions and onslaughts of the Mughals. Hindu Rajas were raising their heads seeing anarchy in the center. During 1247 and 1250 AD Balban regained the areas of Chanderi, Bandelkhand, Ranthambor, Malwa, and Mewat. In 1252 AD Sultan Nasir-ud-Din sacked Ghiyath-ud-Din Balban and replaced him with Imad-ud-Din Rehan, his rival who deteriorated the administrative affairs of the empire. Seeing his inability, Sultan reappointed Balban deposing Rehan. Sultan Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud spent a simple life and earned his living by writing the Holy Quran. On February 18, 1266 AD he fell ill and died after ruling India for 20 years.

Ghiyath-ud-Din Balban (1266-1286 AD)

Alagh Khan Balban (Ghiyath-ud-Din Balban) succeeded the throne after the death of his master in 1266 AD. He is believed to be one of the most authoritarian rulers who ruled over India with all of his stringency. His political and administrative approach has been criticized by the historians and critics but he had aimed at three things when he sat on throne:

1-To secure the country from the invasions of Mughals

2-To counter the intrigues of Muslim rivals

3-To curtail the Hindu rebels

He succeeded in achieving his targets during his rule.  In the surroundings of Delhi, Mewatis had stormed the people with their dacoits and atrocities which were checked by Balban. Mewatis were put to death on a large scale in 1266 AD. The Hindus of Rohailkhand and and Doaaba were treated with austerity and their rebellion came to an end. Tughral Baig, the trusted slave of Balban mutinied in Bengal who got enormous power to defeat Amin Khan and Turghi Khan, the generals of Balban. Consequently, Balban himself had to meet Tughral Baig. Tughral Baig was killed and Bengal was put under the governorship of Bughra Khan. Sultan Balban defended the frontiers from the incursions of the Mughals who had grown up to an impending peril for the empire. He made castles and repaired the old forts to protect the boundaries. In 1286 AD Balban died of the grief of his son Prince Mohammad who was killed by a Mughal sardar who waylaid him. Sultan Balban was buried Near Qutab Minar. He nominated Kaekhusrau, the son of Prince Mohammad his heir but after his death, the courtiers opted for Kekubad who proved to be an unable ruler and lost the empire for good.

Moiz-ud-Din Kekubad (1286-1288 AD)

Moiz-ud-Din Kekubad (the son of Bughra Khan) ascended the throne of his grandfather when he was eighteen years old but his indulgence in licentious habits took a heavy toll from the hard-earned rule of his dynasty and the Khiljis stepped in Punjab. His lavishness was reported to his father Bughra Khan who tried to reform his character but nothing worked. And the day came when Bughra Khan reached Bihar to counter his own son, Kekubad but ultimately the encounter ended up with the restoration of the good terms of the both. Kekubad was killed in 1288 AD in his palace drowning the sun of 75 years’ rule of Turkan Ilbari Dynasty which came to an end and Jalal-ud-Din Khilji took the reins of empire in his hands.

About SAIMA ASHRAF

One comment

  1. Very informative artocles,i have ever read.

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