The third largest city of Sindh province is Sukkur. In Pakistan it is located at the west bank of Indus River in Sukkur District. Sukkur is also spelled as Sakharu which means “superior” in Sindhi. Darya Dino is the nickname of Sukkur, as this city would be a desert without the Indus River. According to a survey inhabitants of Sukkur speaks numerous languages including Sindhi, Urdu, Pashto, Punjabi and Balochi and almost 72% of citizens speak Sindhi, 15.5% speaks Urdu, 4%speaks Punjabi, 1.5% speaks Pashto, 1% speaks Balochi and 1% speaks other languages. Sukkur is also the capital of Sukkur Talukas. Sukkar has the headquarters of Sukkur District, which covers an area of about 5,165 square km.
Sukkur is situated at an altitude of 220 feet from sea level. It is also the narrowest point of the lower Indus course. The northern border of Sukkur District allocates with Shikarpur and the newly formed Kashmore District. On its north-eastern side is located Ghotki while Khairpur on the south, where as border of India lies further east. The city is also linked with road and by air with all prominent cities of the country.
The weather of the city in summer is mostly hot and hazy and during winters the climate remains dry and cold. During the month of January, the temperature reaches up to 7 degree to 22 degree Centigrade and in summer the temperatures ranges up to 50 degree Centigrade and the summer season mostly starts in March- April and it ends before the month of October. The estimated rainfall of the district is about 88mm and reaches from 0.59 mm to 25.62mm per month. The city has been a significant premeditated centre and trading route from time immemorial. When Alexander marched into the region in 326 BCE, at that time Alor was the capital under the region of Muikanos. The remaining of this primeval town still exists, at about 8km east of Rohi in Sukkur District.
A huge temple of Shiva was built by Rai Dynasty. The Arabs assaulted Sindh in 711 CE, which was led by a seventeen years old boy named Muhammad Bin Qasim and then after this Sukkur became a part of the Umayyad Caliphate. Later, Sukkur was ruled by many Mughal and semi-autonomous tribes. Between 1809 and 1824 Sukkur was ceded to Mirs of Khairpur. Until the independence of Pakistan, Sukkur and rest of the Sindh were ruled by British rulers. In 1909, district of Sukkur was represented. In 1930, the British constructed the world’s largest barrage in Sukkur on the Indus River, after which the city saw a remarkable socio-economic uplift. The barrage is considered among the marvelous architecture of the city.
The marvelous barrage built by British rulers is formally known as Lloyd Barrage. The barrage is built on the Indus River. It has almost 66 gates and controls one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. The barrage was intended by Sir Arnold Musto, KCIE under the direction of Sir Charlton Harrison, KCIE as a Chief Engineer. In 1923, the construction of the barrage was started and in January 1932 its construction was concluded. It is almost 5,001 feet long and irrigates nearly 10 million acres of farmland through its seven large canals. The barrage is made up of yellow stone and steel. Some of its canals are larger than the Suez Canal.
The most part of the Muslim population supported Pakistan Movement and Muslim League. Soon after the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Hindus and Sikhs were migrated to India where as the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sukkur. A project was initiated by the government of Punjab in November 2004, to invigorate its water storage capacity and supplying competence and the project was concluded in July 2005. Professionals consider that the rehabilitation of the barrage has improved its effectiveness for another 60 to 70 years. The city is also considered to be the hub of several small and large scale industries.
The imperative large industries of the city includes cement, cotton textiles, leather, paint, tobacco, varnish and paint, hand pumps, rice-husking, pharmaceuticals, sugar, lock making and agricultural implements where as the small-scale industries encompasses hosiery, fishing accessories, boat making, trunk making brass-wares, thread ball spooling, ceramics and cutlery.
A few decades ago the city had a large fertile and cultivable land area when the River Indus was not as infertile as these days. Due to which its agricultural efficiency has been reduced and has not attained a levelheaded yield per unit area over time, on account of continuous shortages of water and ignorance of modern irrigation systems. In spite of the water shortage during Kharif, cotton, bajra, rice, peas and tomatoes are refined while during Rabi the major crops are graham, wheat, barley and melons. The city is also renowned for its appetizing dates. Along the course of Indus the city has a large Riveraine and these tropical forests are present within the defensive embankment on either side of the Indus.