Mohammad of Ghaur died in 1206 AD leaving no heir but he was succeeded by a horde of capable generals who carried the heavy responsibilities of the empire left by him. These generals included Taj-ud-Din Yalduz, Mohammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha, and Qutb-ud-Din Aibak who took the hold of the empires of Ghazni, Bengal, Multan, and Delhi respectively.
Qutb-ud-Din Aibak laid the foundation of the Slave Dynasty. The word slave for the whole dynasty has wrongly been used by the chroniclers as only Aibak was the slave bought by Mufti Fakhr-ud-Din Koofi, the Qazi (judge) of Neshapur. He was a native of Turkistan who was brought up along with the two sons of the Qazi. He was taught Arabic, Persian, and science with the handiness of horse-riding and warfare. After the death of Qazi, Aibak was again sold and brought to Ghazna by a trader from where Mohammad of Ghaur bought him as a slave. Since Islam removes the difference between the master and the slave, and the slaves could have flourished them through their knowledge and skills, the Muslim rulers supported and encouraged them to reach the zeniths. The Dynasty was founded by Qutb-ud-Din Aibak who executed his duties as the Ghauri administrator in the reign of Ghauri from 1192-1206 AD.
Qutb-ud-Din Aibak (1206-1210 AD)
After the death of his master, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak came to power and celebrated his crown in Lahore with the title of Sultan. Hearing this news, Taj-ud-Din Yalduz, the ruler of Ghazna revolted against him and marched towards Punjab which resulted in the capture of Lahore by Yaldus. Sultan Aibak met Yalduz and forced him to retreat and made Lahore his capital after regaining it. Other generals of Mohammad of Gaur also claimed the throne. Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha stood against Aibak whereas Ali Mardan raised a voice against him in Bengal. Instead of opening war on all the fronts, Aibak adopted a reconciliatory policy to pacify the insurgents. He married the daughter of Yalduz and wedded his own daughter to Shams-ud-Din Altumish and second daughter to Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha. These political “kinships” brought about the message of peace for him from these adversaries.
The reign of Qutb-ud-Din Aibak
Aibak ruled only for four years after the death of his master Shahab-ud-Din Ghauri. But his administrative qualities can be seen in the life of Ghauri who showered his favors on him due to his valor and loyalty. He was declared as prince crown of the empire by the Sultan in 1205 AD when the later was killed on the bank of River Indus. Quwwat-ul-Islam Masjid and Qutab Minar in Delhi (built in the commemoration of Khawaja Bakhtiyar Kaki, a famous Sufi saint of his time and which was completed by his successor), and Adhay Din ka Jhonpra Mosque at Ajmer are the remarkable monuments of Qutb-ud-Din Aibak. Being a man of good taste, he patronized the writers like Fakhruddin, the author of Tarikh-e-Mubarak Shahi and Hasan Nizami, the writer of Taj-ul-Muasir. It is surprising that he had to meet no military power in his reign partly because his tenure was too short and partly due to his reconciliatory policy towards his opponents especially Taj-ud-Din Yalduz who was the strongest rival. Qutb-ud-Din Aibak died in 1210 AD when, playing polo, he fell down from the horse and died of the subsequent wounds. His tomb lies in Anarkali Bazar of Lahore.