Nader Shah (Knowns as Tahmasp Qoli Khan or Nader Qoli Beg), the ruler of Iran during 1736-1747 founded the Afsharid Dynasty. As a hunter of anarchy, he availed the weakness of Husayn, the King of Persia when Hotaki Afghans overthrew Husayn.
Belonging to the Afshar Clan of northern Persia, he is called the Second Alexander, and the Napolean of Persia. Persia was invaded by the Ottomans and Russians seeing the mayhem in Iran. Nader Shah combated the invaders and forced them to leave Iran and brought an end to the Safavid Dynasty ruling Iran since last two centuries and became the King of the Empire consisting of Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Oman and Central Asia in 1736. He dominated on the horizons of the Middle East and was rightly called “the last great military conqueror of Asia” by the chroniclers.
He occupies a remarkable place in the history of Indo-Pakistan as he invaded India after he conquered Kandahar in 1738. Seeing the inroads of Maratha into the Empire of the feeble Mughals and their internal conflicts, he thought of marching towards India. The weak writ of Mohammad Shah, the Mughal ruler was unable to tackle the disputes spread all around him. Afghan nobles rested with Mohammad Shah and Nader Shah asked Mohammad Shah to hand over these Afghan nobles but on the refusal of Mohammad Shah, he plundered Delhi and captured Lahore,Peshawar, Sindh, Kabul, Ghazni. The Mughal army had to face a humiliating defeat at the hands of Nader Shah in the Battle of Karnal on February 13, 1739. Mohammad Shah was arrested and Nader Shah entered Delhi accompanied by Mohammad Shah. As soon as the rumor of Nader Shah’s death broke out in the public and army, Nader Shah, infuriated on this news, ordered to perish Delhi. 20,000 to 30,000 people including army men and civilians were brutally put to death by Nader Shah. Mohammad Shah begged his pardon and handed over the assets of the Mughal Empire to Nader Shah. Peacock Throne, Dariya-e-Noor Diamond, Koh-e-Noor Diamond slipped away from the hands of the Mughals. He returned to Delhi with horses, elephants, and camels loaded with the booty from Delhi. The pickings were in such a quantity and volume that Nader Shah exempted taxes on his masses for next three years in Iran.