An archeological site in the Sindh province of Pakistan is known as Mohenjo Daro. It is one of the world’s earliest and largest urban settlements and also known as Indus Valley Civilization. It was built around 2600 BCE in the Larkana district of Sindh. Mohenjo Daro was rediscovered in 1922 as it was abandoned in the 19th century BCE. The real name of this city is unknown and Mohenjo Daro is the modern name of this site that literally means “mound of death”. In 1980, this site was chosen as a UNESO World Heritage Site. It was sophisticatedly civil engineered with the urban planning.
For over 3,700 years, the ruins of city remained undiscovered until an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India named Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay discovered it in 1922. The architecture of Mohenjo Daro indicates that this city was constructed on the plan layout of grid streets. Most of the buildings were built of fired brick and some were constructed with the sun-dried mud brick. Architecture and the way this city was built reflect the high levels of social organization. According to an estimate, there could be around 35,000 residents on the time of city’s peak of development. The city could be splitted into two parts. One can be called Citadel and other one could be called lower city.
The Citadel city is around 12 meters high that is made of mud brick. This part of city supported the public baths, two assembly halls and a residential area to accommodate 5000 people. There was a central market place with the large wall in the city. Small wells were there to obtain water for the groups of households. The city had proper sanitation system and covered drain channels to link the major streets of the city. Some houses over there indicate that some of the rooms there were set aside for bathing. One of the building discovered there had an underground heating system most probably for heated bathing.
Mohenjo-Daro was not a walled city but on its west side, there were guard towers and on the south defensive fortification was done. In the digging and excavation at Mohenjo-Daro many objects were found including seated and standing statues, carved seals, copper and stone tools, jewellery of gold and jasper and the children’s toys as well.
It is said that at least seven times Mohenjo Daro was destroyed and rebuilt successively. New buildings were constructed on the old city. The cause of destruction is thought to be the flooding of Indus.